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          看BBC,學口語寫作9
          來源: | 作者:理想國教育 | 發布時間: 2019-12-29 | 1609 次瀏覽 | 分享到:
          我們時常聽到這樣的故事,很多不慎丟失的寵物能夠從幾十甚至幾百公里意外走回家。但科學家似乎還不能解釋它們是怎么找回家的。那么,今天我們來一起學習的話題是:寵物是怎樣導航回家的呢(How do pets navigate?)


          There are a few theories about how cats and dogs navigate – but we don’t yet have the full answer.關于貓狗如何導航回家,有許多理論研究。但是都沒有得到圓滿的答案。


          Both cats and dogs have an extremely powerful sense of smell, of course. Smells are like signposts – they let you know where you are. Visual landmarks also play a role, just as they do with humans. A landmark is something very easily recognised – a big building or mountain for example.貓和狗夠具有強大的嗅覺能力。嗅覺就相當于指示牌,可以讓他們知道自己在哪??梢暬窐艘灿兄匾饔?,就像對人類的作用一樣,路標很容易被認出來,比如一幢大樓或一座山。


          And what about this one: magnets are pieces of metal which attract certain other kinds of metal - for example, iron or steel. The Earth itself has a magnetic force.那這個呢:磁鐵屬于金屬的一部分,但它可以吸引另一種金屬,比如鐵或者鋼。地球本身也存在磁力。


          Birds use it to help them navigate over thousands of miles – it tells them where north is. It’s thought they have some iron in their beaks.鳥兒們根據磁力飛行數千英里——因此磁力可以告訴它們哪邊是北方。有人認為它們的嘴里帶有鐵質物質。


          But some scientists think mammals also have this capability.但有些科學家認為哺乳類動物同樣有這種能力。


          So we have a few ideas –smell, landmarks, magnetic forces – but can we explain how one kitty travelled over 200 miles by itself back to its home?那么我們有點思路了,嗅覺、路標、磁力——但是怎么解釋一只貓能夠獨自徒步200多英里回到家呢?


          Let's hear from cat and dog expert Dr John Bradshaw. How do cats build up the maps in their heads?來聽聽貓犬專家約翰·布拉德肖博士怎么說。貓咪是如何在大腦中構建地圖的?


          What they do when they are in a new territory is explore it in a very systematic way. So they will go out in ever-increasing circles, they'll literally construct a mental map in their heads. And so a cat that’s lost its territory probably does the same thing. They'll rely on the idea that if they go out in ever-increasing circles or rectangles then eventually they'll either come across the territory or they'll come across a smell carried on the wind of the territory that they used to live in and then be able to go home.它們在陌生領域會用一種非常系統化的方式探索周圍環境。因此它們會以自己為中心不斷擴大活動范圍,在頭腦中構建一張虛擬地圖。一只貓離開自己領地可能也會做同樣的事情。它們會有一種想法:如果將活動范圍以圓圈或矩形逐漸擴大,或許它們會偶然找回曾經住過的地方,或者憑借風中傳來的氣味找回家。


          Cats have a systematic approach – which means they use a system. Which is: first they walk around their area in a small circle, then a bigger one and then a bigger one – until they have a strong mental map of the place.貓有一種系統的方式,也就是說它們利用一種系統。首先,它們會在腦海中將自己周圍圈起來,然后將圓圈不斷擴大直到在頭腦中勾畫出這個地方的地圖。


          Yes – a mental map is a map in your head – stored in your memory. And the area cats explore – their home area - is called their territory. Cats are territorial – which means their territory is very important to them.是的,心理地圖是指你頭腦中的地圖,保存在你的記憶中。貓所探索的地區,也就是它們的家所在的地區,就是它們的領地。貓是很有領土意識的,領地對它們來說非常重要。


          Having a map is great, but what happens when a cat gets lost? Dr Bradshaw says that again, it moves around in bigger and bigger circles, until it finds a clue – which is a landmark or a smell – that tells it where it is. Well, that's the theory. Though Dr Bradshaw says we really still don't have enough data – that's enough information about this.能有地圖是一件很棒的事,但要是一只貓走丟了呢?布拉德肖博士也說了,貓會不斷擴大活動范圍,直到發現線索——一個路標,或一種氣味,明白自己現在的位置。就是這個理論。即使布拉德肖博士表示還缺乏足夠的數據,但這些信息足以回答那個問題了。


          (Reference: BBC,可可英語)
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